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22  Bibliography

“... many variations exist in the explanations of aerodynamic theories and principles”.
   — Flight Training Handbook (reference 15)

“... but not many correct variations”.
   — jsd

1.
Wolfgang Langewiesche, Stick and Rudder, McGraw-Hill (1944) ISBN 07 036240 8.
Level:
Non-technical, easy to read.
Intended Readership:
Pilots.
Remarks:
This is a classic. It should be required reading for all pilots.
Contents:
Wings, Some Air Sense, The Controls, The Basic Maneuvers, Getting Down, The Dangers of the Air, Some More Air Sense.
Strengths:
Emphasizes the importance of energy management (although by a different name). Emphasizes the role of the stick in controlling airspeed.
Weaknesses:
Some sections are a bit dated, such as the (1944) plea to switch from taildraggers to tricycle gear. Also: page 34 reiterates the common misconception that a stalled wing cannot produce lift.

2.
Robert Coram, BOYD – The Fighter Pilot who Changed the Art of War (2002) ISBN 0-316-88146-5.
Level:
Completely non-technical, easy to read.
Intended Readership:
General public, military buffs.
Remarks:
John Boyd originated the Energy-Maneuverability (“EM”) theory. This book is mostly about the person and won’t teach you much about pilot technique. Note that Boyd published very little; most of his work was presented in classified briefings.

3.
Richard von Mises, Theory of Flight, (1945; Dover reprint 1959) ISBN 0 486 60541 8.
Level:
Technical. Uses calculus of complex variables.
Intended Readership:
Aerodynamicists, aircraft designers.
Remarks:
Another classic. I look here first for almost everything. Von Mises knows and loves airplanes, and is also a first class aerodynamicist.
Contents:
Section titles: Equilibrium and Steady Flow in the Atmosphere; The Wing; Propeller and Engine; Airplane Performance; Airplane Control and Stability.

4.
William K. Kershner, The Student Pilot’s Flight Manual, Iowa State University.
Level:
Non-technical.
Intended Readership:
Student pilots.
Remarks:
Easy to read. Very good introductory text. Good review for private pilots.

5.
William K. Kershner, The Advanced Pilot’s Flight Manual, Iowa State University (fifth edition, 1985) ISBN 0 8138 1300 X.
Level:
Non-technical.
Intended Readership:
Aspiring commercial pilots.
Remarks:
Fun to read. Recommended even for student pilots.
Contents:
Airplane Performance and Stability for Pilots; Checking Out in Advanced Models and Types; Emergencies and Unusual Situations; Advanced Navigation; High-Altitude Operations; Preparing for the Commercial Written and Flight Tests.
Strengths:
Covers a lot of good pilot-oriented material not covered elsewhere. Escapes many of the standard misconceptions.

6.
William K. Kershner, The Flight Instructor’s Manual, Iowa State University (second edition, 1974) ISBN 0 8138 0653 6.
Level:
Non-technical.
Intended Readership:
Aspiring flight instructors.
Remarks:
Easy to read. Recommended even for non-instructors.
Strengths:
Very good discussion of spins, and a decent discussion of eights on pylons.

7.
William K. Kershner, The Basic Aerobatics Manual, Iowa State University (1987) ISBN 0 0138 0063 3.
Level:
Non-technical.
Intended Readership:
Pilots.
Remarks:
Easy to read. Recommended.
Strengths:
Contains an authoritative discussion of spins, including some test-flight data.

8.
Trevor Thom, The Pilot’s Manual — The Airplane, Center for Aviation Theory (1991). Available through AOPA.
Remarks:
Part of a three-volume set: Flight Training, The Airplane, Flight Operations.
Level:
Non-technical.
Intended Readership:
Pilots (private and commercial).
Strengths:
Covers a lot of topics not covered elsewhere. Escapes many of the standard misconceptions. Correctly emphasizes the role of angle of attack (not camber) in creating lift.
Weaknesses:
Falls prey to some of the standard misconceptions about separation vs. turbulence, P-factor, et cetera. Chapter 3 opens with a novel incorrect derivation of Bernoulli’s principle.

9.
H. H. Hurt, Jr., Aerodynamics for Naval Aviators, U.S. Navy (1960, revised 1965) “NAVWEPS 00-80T-80”.
Level:
Moderately technical. Uses equations.
Intended Readership:
Originally, Navy pilots.
Strengths:
The discussion of wings and lift is the best I’ve seen in pilot-oriented books, and is illustrated with data on real airfoils.
Weaknesses:
Later sections concentrate on high-speed flight and turbine engines — not of primary importance to most general aviation pilots. The discussion of pitch stability is a disappointment: there is a huge discussion of secondary issues like bobweights and wing/tail interference, but not even a single mention of decalage. Naturally, the discussion of canards runs into trouble.

10.
Courtland D. Perkins and Robert E. Hage, Airplane Performance, Stability, and Control, Wiley (1949) ISBN 0 471 68046 X.
Level:
Technical. Uses calculus. Over 1000 equations.
Intended Readership:
Aircraft designers.
Remarks:
Standard reference. Emphasizes practical issues.

11.
E. L. Houghton and N. B. Carruthers, Aerodynamics for Engineering Students, Edward Arnold (1982) ISBN 0 7131 3433 X.
Level:
Technical. Uses calculus of complex variables.
Intended Readership:
Aircraft designers.
Remarks:
Less romantic but more modern than von Mises.

12.
H. C. “Skip” Smith, The Illustrated Guide to Aerodynamics, TAB Books (a division of McGraw-Hill) (second edition, 1992). ISBN 0 8306 3901 2.
Level:
Moderately technical. Algebra but no calculus.
Intended Readership:
Pilots.
Weaknesses:
Erroneous discussion of lift production.
Remarks:
Useful intermediate book: easier to read than reference 14; more coverage of topics important to pilots than reference 13.

13.
Peter P. Wegener, What Makes Airplanes Fly?, Springer-Verlag (1991) ISBN 0 387 97513 6.
Level:
Non-technical. A few simple equations here and there.
Intended Readership:
Liberal arts students.
Remarks:
Lots of historical background. Discusses the aerodynamics of everything from birds to automobiles to supersonic airliners. Discusses the economic impact of aviation.
Strengths:
Easy to read. Good discussion of circulation, Kutta condition, bound & trailing vortices. Nice table of form drag for various shapes.

14.
W. N. Hubin, The Science of Flight : Pilot-oriented Aerodynamics, Iowa State University Press (1992) ISBN 0 8138 0398 5.
Level:
Technical. Hundreds of equations; algebra but no calculus.
Intended Readership:
Pilots.
Contents:
Some Reasons and Some Terminology; Distances, Velocities, and Times; Force, Mass, and Moments; Static Properties of the Atmosphere; Subsonic Fluid Flow; Transonic and Supersonic Fluid Flow; Airspeeds; Determining Airfoil Properties; Airfoil Coefficients; A short History of Airfoils; Airfoils Compared; Properties of Wings; Lift, Drag, and Power for the Complete Aircraft; Aircraft Performance; Stalls, Dives, and Turns; Winds, Loops, Rolls, and Spins; Stability, Trim and Control; Aerodynamic Simulation: Tunnels and Computers; Aircraft Design Considerations.
Strengths:
A broader range of topics and a deeper level of detail than available in typical pilot-oriented books. Hundreds of annotated bibliographic citations. Clearly states that stability does not require a download on the tail.
Weaknesses:
On several graphs, the power curve is shown continuing below the stalling speed. Although the concept of circulation is introduced, the crucial connection is lost, namely the connection between circulation, air parcel arrival times, camber, and Bernoulli’s principle. Also falls prey to P-factor misconceptions.
Remarks:
Despite the “pilot-oriented” subtitle, much of the material seems more oriented to designers than pilots. Recommended for readers who would like more mathematical detail beyond See How It Flies but don’t quite need a Ph.D. in aerodynamics.

15.
FAA Advisory Circular AC 61-21A Flight Training Handbook (revised 1980). Available through the Government Printing Office; reprints available from pilot-oriented bookstores and supply shops.
Level:
Non-technical.
Intended Readership:
All pilots, including students.
Weaknesses:
Numerous errors, some of which are quite serious.
Remarks:
Superseded by reference 16 and to some extent by reference 17.

16.
FAA publication H-8083-3 Airplane Flying Handbook (revised 1999). Available through the Government Printing Office; reprints available from pilot-oriented bookstores and supply shops.
Level:
Non-technical.
Intended Readership:
All pilots, including students.
Weaknesses:
Numerous errors, some of which are quite serious. Superficial coverage of many topics.
Remarks:
Since this the “official” book, other writers feel entitled (or even obliged) to repeat what it says, errors and all.

17.
FAA Advisory Circular AC 61-23C, Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (revised 1997). Available through the Government Printing Office; reprints available from pilot-oriented bookstores and supply shops.
Level:
Non-technical.
Intended Readership:
All pilots, including students.
Weaknesses:
Even more full of errors than reference 15.

18.
FAA Advisory Circular AC 61-27C, Instrument Flying Handbook (revised 2001). Available through the Government Printing Office; reprints available from pilot-oriented bookstores and supply shops.
Level:
Non-technical.
Intended Readership:
All pilots, including students.
Weaknesses:
Many, including erroneous discussion of spiral dives.

19.
John Roncz, a series of articles in Sport Aviation, appearing monthly from April 1990 to February 1991.
Level:
Minimally technical. Uses simple equations as needed.
Intended Readership:
The typical builder/pilot in the Experimental Aircraft Association.
Contents:
Recounts the design of a homebuilt aircraft, step by step. Includes spreadsheet programs to help with the design.

20.
James S. Bowman, Jr., “Summary of Spin Technology as Related to Light General-Aviation Airplanes”, NASA report TN D-6575 (1971).

21.
Sanger M. Burk, Jr., James S. Bowman, Jr., and William L. White, “Spin-Tunnel Investigation of the Spinning Characteristics of Typical Single-Engine General Aviation Airplane Designs”, NASA report (1977).

22.
Joseph R. Chambers and Sue B. Grafton, “Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airplanes at High Angles of Attack”, NASA report (1977).

23.
Peter Bradshaw, “Effects of Streamline Curvature on Turbulent Flow”, NATO Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development AGARDograph No. 169 (1973).
Level:
Technical.
Intended Readership:
Aerodynamicists.
Remarks:
Contains an authoritative discussion of the physics behind the Coandǎ effect.

24.
John Denker, “Bernoulli’s Principle”
//www.av8n.com/physics/bernoulli.htm
Level:
Technical.
Intended Readership:
physicists and engineers.
Contents:
Derives Bernoulli’s principle twice: once in terms of enthalpy, and once in terms of force-balance.
Strengths:
Derivations are correct to all orders – not just a first-order approximation. Does not assume the fluid is “incompressible”.

25.
John Denker, “Modern Thermodynamics”
//www.av8n.com/physics/thermo/
Level:
Technical.
Intended Readership:
physicists and engineers.
Contents:
The laws of thermodynamics, with applications
Strengths:
Thermodynamics is celebrated for its power, generality, and elegance. However, all too often, students are taught some sort of pseudo-thermodynamics that is infamously confusing, limited, and ugly. This is an attempt to do better.

26.
Ira H. Abbot and Albert E. von Doenhoff, Theory of Wing Sections, Dover (1949; reprinted 1958) ISBN 0 486 60586 8.
Level:
Main part is technical. Uses calculus of complex variables.
Intended Readership:
Aircraft designers.
Contents:
Really two books in one: a 300-page theory book, plus a 400-page “appendix” containing wind-tunnel data on NACA airfoils.
Remarks:
Many people buy it for the appendix.
Strengths:
Authoritative.

27.
Robert T. Jones, Wing Theory, Princeton U. Press (1990) ISBN 0 691 08536 6.
Level:
Technical. Uses calculus of complex variables.
Intended Readership:
Aerodynamicists.
Strengths:
Suggests extending Zhukovsky theory by using compositions of Zhukovsky-like transformations, which is definitely an advance over the product forms (with non-intuitive side conditions) used since the days of the pioneers (von Kàrmàn & Trefftz, von Mises). Advocates playing with airfoil sections on your PC.
Weaknesses:
Disorganized. Spotty selection of topics. Programs are buggy and inelegant.
Remarks:
Contains some interesting wrinkles, such as the lift-to-drag curves for the forward wing of the Voyager aircraft that flew around the world without refueling. The author clearly is a worker in the field, not just a spectator.

28.
Richard P. Feynman, Robert B. Leighton, and Matthew Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Addison-Wesley (1970) ISBN: 0201021153.
Level:
Progresses from introductory to technical. Intended readership: Undergraduate physics and engineering majors. Also read, re-read, and revered by Nobel prizewinners.
Strengths:
A classic. Brilliant, incisive, elegant. It will teach you how to think like a physicist.
Weaknesses:
It’s like an SR-71, not like a C-152. Some people find it too demanding.
Remarks:
A physicist’s physics book.
Contents:
Volume I: Laws of motion, thermodynamics, et cetera. Volume II: Electricity, magnetism, fluid flow, et cetera. Volume III: Quantum mechanics.

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